Wednesday, May 27, 2020
The Wages of Relief: Cities and the Unemployed in Prairie Canada (Essay Sample) Content: StudentÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬s nameProfessorÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬s nameCourseDateThe Wages of Relief: Cities and the Unemployed in Prairie CanadaThe book wages of relief: Cities and the unemployed in Prairie Canada 1929-39 is one of its kind. It paves the way to CanadaÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬s modern welfare system. All this is, however, after a critical analysis of the History of CanadaÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬s business and labor. In a bid to understand the Canadian Business, as well as its labor history, the book, Wages of relief plays a key role. This is because it goes back to history when Canadian businesses gave in no profit. In addition to that, it explores the labor history of Canada and how the nation handled the same crisis. It thus gives the roots of Canada other than bringing its modern picture alone without the history behind the same. The book is also essential in my course as it focuses on various social and economic crises and how they were brilliantly handled so that we have a productive Canada to day. It serves as a guide to other states who suffer the same crisis and are unable to handle the latter. The significance of Wages of Relief are mostly because apart from giving the past and present state of the land that suffered tremendous social, economic downfall, it gives solutions to the same thus allowing for hope to more nations even in the future generations (Strikwerda, 24). To begin with Strikwerda lays the foundation of the condition of the Canadian Prairie City that makes a core part of the cityÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬s history. This also forms the basis of my review. The Canadian Prairie City is recorded to have suffered an economic decline before the Great War. This has it that the nation suffered high rates of unemployment as well as poverty among other social, economic crises. Near the beginning of 1920Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬s nevertheless; several metropolises had already come up with mechanisms of dealing with the economic crises that the nation suffered before the immense war. As a result (Strikwerda, 14), The Canadian Prairie City was more or less a safe and sound refuge in the initial part of the 1930Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬s during the Great War as recorded by Strikwerda.In this review, I have not only reviewed the book but I have also paid attention in the course commentary. It begins with my awareness of the book. In this segment, I have highlighted certain issues which I woul d love to pursue in my review. In addition to that, I have explained how suitable the book is to my coverage. Later in my review, I have explained how better equipped I am to understand the Canadian business, as well as its labor history, after reading it. I have thus given a conventional review with course commentary based on how I understood the book to be as discussed below (Strikwerda, 36).It is important to appreciate the role of the leadership of the nation towards the healing of their state. For instance, awaiting 1933, the country played a key role in maintaining its responsibility of paying consideration to the less privileged in their municipalities. This was a task run by the local governments. The situation and management nonetheless shift to the central government when the crisis becomes severe. This was a result of the collapse of most farms that year which intensified the hopelessness in the society. Western Canadian Cities for instance are stated to have undergone a massive negative economic growth (Strikwerda, 54).Some structural adjustments are noted to be put in place as soon as the government takes over the leadership of the state from the local leadership. For instance, there is the development of centralized programs that are burdened with the responsibility of delivering aids to those who were single as well as married couples and unemployed. They worked under new policies, as well. In addition to that, the central government also pulls out from funding for open public works schemes. The government is also recorded to set up metropolitan aid administrations whose core task is to ensure they give relief to the urban poor as well as cater for their well being. The government comes up with policies that guide the policy makers not only in ascertaining policy directions but the understanding of the individuals also as well as households who relied on the aids for their daily living (Strikwerda, 64).If we paid attention to these three Canadia n Cities for reference: Edmonton, Saskatoon and Winnipeg, Strikwerda reasons out that the city officials manipulated their authority to come up with guiding principles that focused on what they comprehended to be the most critical hazards to social order which originated from the economic crisis. He for instance analyzes the difference with which the local relief programs handled the married men with respect to the single ones. He also critics essential gendered varieties at work places in reaction to the municipal administrators to both the economic and social turmoil of the dejection. In questioning the way of thinking of the native elites in Canada who struggle beyond normal circumstances, Strikwerda in his Wages of Relief portrays the continuing impact of those policy changes. This is especially when addressing the abroad and national tactic to unemployment. It is the methodology responsible for the CanadaÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬s current welfare systems which are successful.After reading th e book Wages of Relief, I am better equipped to understand the Canadian business and its labor history. This is based on the fact that the book explores the different economic and social crises that the nation suffered back in history. This is essential before its economic boom (Strikwerda, 74). The book for instance records that the nation suffered an economic crisis even before the Great War, which was responsible for the fall of most economies. As a result, the nation had put its mind towards healing its land even before the war. Therefore, when the war came forth, the nation could not engage in it rather it considered ensuring the growth of the nation because most Canadians were suffering depression (Strikwerda, 90).During those ancient times, it is important to note that the leadership of the state was decentralized. As a result, the Canadian business and labor was highly decentralized in that people could so easily work within their native regions rather than migrate and move across the country in the name of work. This meant that the local government had the task of caring for its natives alone instead of the entire nation. This government was not very successful and as a result, there was a shift to the central government.The book addresses the problem of unemployment. This means the countryÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬s labor is more developed when weighed against those dark years. The nation has thus grown a great deal even in creating jobs since the years of economic and social depression. This was as a result of the economic fall before the war which lessened the demand for laborers in different fields. Consequently, the local government could not meet the cost of paying its employees as expected due to the economic instability. In addition to that, more people lost their jobs during the war due to insecurity amongst other factors. The withdrawal of the government from financing the public works projects was also responsible for the unemployment because most employe es were forced to withdraw as they expected no income. This was heightened when the government withdrew from financing the public works (Strikwerda, 102).The nation also relied on the agricultural industry most. This is apparent when the depression that the nation suffered worsened after their farms failed to produce in 1933. It is for this reason that the central government came in to aid. As a result, it is unmistakable that Canada has come from a larger expectancy on the agricultural business to the industrial sector among other fields. This has increased their sources of income and consequently their job opportunities thus curbing the problem of unemployment (Strikwerda, 124).Among the aspects to review, creation of job opportunities and employment are most important. It is essential to note that the municipal officials were unfair in the creation of job opportunities. For instance, they offered most of the major social works to the married and unemployed men while ignoring the single men. In their policies, they stated that they could not give any aid unless the individuals worked. As a result, most people flooded to work even when there were insufficient vacancies. They for instance, they at most employed 500 men yet the unemployed were beyond 1000. As a result, they were forced to offer support even to those who did not work. They defended their selves by falsely accusing the single men of arising crises that referred them to as the major threat to the economic development. This problem was, however, handled by the central government which took over the burden of the single men. They created camps where they could offer them with essential aids for survival. The camps were under the management of the Department of National Defense so as to handle the threat claimed by the municipal officials. From this, it is palpable that the municipal officials abused their positions by mistreating the citizens and failing to exercise equity and fairness in distribut ion of the resources thus led to betray the citizens (Strikwerda, 150).There was also gender based discrimination. For example, the created jobs were only offered to the married men whether or not they were qualified. This was unlike the women even if they were qualified. Apart from that, the system focused on employment as a right to an unqualified man and not a right to a qualified woman. This was based on their marital status as well as well as the economic backgrounds. The assumption was made on the belief that, during moments of economic crisis, there should be only ...
Saturday, May 16, 2020
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Recently, the NCAA and CBS signed a $10.8 billion television agreement over 14 years (Hartnett). So why would it be a problem for student athletes to be paid? Most people that is close to the discussion believe student athletes should not be paid because they are not mature enough at the time and can be easily exploited by the people around them. Ã¢â¬Å"Should student athletes get paid?Ã¢â¬ has been a major topic of discussion, and with so many lives affected in the decision no decision has been made. The obscurity of what student athletes should get paid is the major problem. Many people would see it unfair for a quarterback of a powerhouse college team to receive $5,000, but a tennis player of a college e team to receive $ 1,500, NCAA officials mentioned that fewer than 7% of Division I athletic programs made money between Ã¢â¬â¢04 and Ã¢â¬Ë10 (Dohrmann). Dohrmann agrees that Ã¢â¬Å"the books are cooked Ã¢â¬Å"(qtd by Ross). With revenue from national televised games and tickets sales, it is estimated that the 7% should be up to around 80%. The NCAA approved for schools the option to raise the student athleteÃ¢â¬â¢s scholarships by $2,000, but several schools pleaded that could not afford to do this. Lawyer Jeffery Kessler filled an antitrust claim against the NCAA on behalf of the college students. The lawsuit agrees that it should be illegal for NCAA member schools to generate revenue from sports and not pay student athletes. Kessler wants to take it a step further to the point of an open market for highShow MoreRelatedShould Student-Athletes Get Paid3389 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesShould Student-Athletes Get Paid Wilson Hinds Professor Dorothy Valentine, Strayer University 5 December 2012 Abstract For many students, the college experience is measured by the success of their NCAA-sanctioned athletic programs. Without the experience and athletic performance the student athlete brings, most colleges would not reap the benefit of these significant revenue-generating activities. At best, current NCAA regulations need to be revisited to ensure all avenues are addressedRead MoreShould Student Athletes Get Paid?2046 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesShould Student Athletes Get Paid? There have been much controversy weather universities should pay student athletes. The nation is divided into two groups, financially compensating the student-athlete or not. One side declares Division I and Division II schools make millions of dollars off ticket and merchandise, therefore, the athlete should receive a salary. The argument arises when for instance in football or basketball, schools make millions for winning bowls or tournaments, which theRead MoreShould College Athletes Be Paid?1578 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAshay Mehta Nou Per 8 Should College Athletes Be Paid? One of the hottest debates in the sports industry is if college athletes should be paid. If you want to pay these athletes, how would the college determine the dollar amount that should be paid? Should the basketball team make more than the football team? Should the the soccer team be paid as well? Cheerleading? Chess team? Should everyone on the team get a salary? What if your college is good at football and your basketball team is awfulRead MoreShould Students Get Paid?. To Foundationally Break The1524 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesShould Students Get Paid? To foundationally break the question on whether student athletes should get paid or not, we need to ask ourselves if students should get paid in the first place. Students are the reason why many young adults go to college. Students are people attending a lesson willingly to learn a lesson. College and Universities are a place for students to learn and excel with the enormous resources that are available for students to utilize. Several of our brightest citizens of the worldRead More Should College Athletes be Paid? Essay1510 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswith sports is, should student athletes be be paid a salary? Some people believe that they should be paid and others would completely disagree. Even though they technically are being paid, they really are not. The only type of way the athletes would be paid is through financial aid or if they have a job. Only their education is being paid by the school. Although some people believe that they should be paid, it would not be a good idea a t all. So college athletes should not be paid at all becauseRead MoreShould College Athletes Get Paid?1742 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesShould College Athletes Get Paid? Should college athletes be paid? This has been a controversial topic ever since college sports started. Many people argue that they should. Many people argue that they should not. College athletes should get paid because they work extremely hard playing their sport. The people that say they should be paid argue that the amount of time athletes dedicate is equivalent to a full-time job, and maybe even more. The people that say they should not get paid argue that collegeRead MoreThe Best Athletes Money, Clothes, Cars1082 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAnother argument is that these Ã¢â¬Å"full-rideÃ¢â¬ scholarships that are given to the best athletes do not actually cover all of their expenses. When this happens, schools have boosters. Boosters give the college athletes money, clothes, cars etc. Example of that is Reggie Bush, running back for the University of Southern California from 2003-2005. Bush was paid by boosters to attend USC, which violated NCAA rules. Bush was talked about bad when the violations were revealed and had to return his HeismanRead MoreShould College Athletes Get Paid?853 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesShould College Athletes Really Get Paid? The question whether Ã¢â¬Å"If college athletes should get paid or not?Ã¢â¬ has been debated for many years. The debate is brought up every year during the NCAA menÃ¢â¬â¢s basketball, March Madness competition, and starts again when football season begins. College athletes do provide entertainment for sports fans, but all the benefits that they do receive should limit them from being paid. The benefits student athletes obtain is free tuition, health coverage, and an openedRead MorePhysical And Mentally - Original Writing Essay1610 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesaching in pain, but you have no choice to get out of bed. You have the first round of your two-a-day practices. Despite being physical and mentally exhausted from practice and classes, you walk to the field and start your day. All of this while the rest of campus sleeps in until 5 minutes before class. Practice gets done at 7:45 a.m., and you have class at 8. You do not even get to eat breakfast as you have to run across campus to avoid being late. You get done with classes, and then you have yourRead MoreCollege Athletes Should Not Be Paid1355 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescollege athletes getting paid to play a sport, but technically they are not considered a Ã¢â¬Å"professionalÃ¢â¬ athlete. It would be a terrible idea to pay college athletes to do what they are going to school for. Most college athletes get some or all of their college paid for, but they want to get paid in money too? ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not right. They could spend the money unwisely and they could lose focus on what college is meant for and that is to learn to be able to obtain a job. I understand that college athletes have
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
According to the Human Society of the United States, 2. 7 million animals are euthanized each year, yet human assisted euthanasia is not even legal in 46 states. Not only do animals not have to give consent to their deaths but it is legal in every single state. Even though the basis of Kantian ethics and Catholicism lie hundreds of years apart, they are almost identical when it comes to their views on some moral issues. In regards to euthanasia, Kant and Catholicism have different reasons, yet their views are the same in that they say euthanasia is wrong. To find whether or not Kant and Catholics agree or disagree, there must first be a consensus on whether euthanasia is the same as killing someone. As defined by Websters dictionary, to kill is to cause the death. Voluntary euthanasia, which is the only type that is present in the United States, must fit five characteristics in order for it to be legal. First, the patient must be suffering from a deadly illness. Second, the disease must be so developed that a cure for the said disease would not increase the chance of life. Furthermore, if the deathly ill person has unparalleled pain and even if saved, he or she would need life support for the remaining time. Moreover, and probably most importantly the person must wish and want to die. Finally, the person must not have the strength to kill themselves on their own. When these questions are cleared, the doctor may then give a series of drugs that first but the patient in a coma and then a painless death. The doctor is clearly causing the death of the patient; therefore, no matter how society looks at it, by definition, euthanasia is indeed an act of killing. No matter the circumstances surrounding the action, in the eyes of the Catholic Church, killing is always wrong. This matter can be settled with a literal translation and reading of the Bible. In Exodus Chapter 21 verse 23 it states, mfou are to take life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot. As anyone can see, the Catholics during the time that the bible was written agree that killing is wrong and has the gravest of consequences. Still today, Catholics share the same beliefs as it states in the Catechism Whatever its motives and means, direct euthanasia onsists in putting an end to the lives of handicapped, sick, or dying persons. It is morally unacceptable. This is morally unacceptable because an act such as this goes against, the dignity of the human person and to the respect due to the living God, his Creator (CCC 2277). From these citations of the Catechism, Catholics can see that God does not give permission to use euthanasia not only because human dignity is lost, but also because it is a vice against the being who created the life itself. Kant, like Catholics would agree that no one should ever be killed strictly because illing is wrong. Kant would refer to the categorical imperatives when making his decision. His first formulation of categorical imperative talks about man being a rational being; since he is a rational being, he has no right to formulate such a maxim like if I am in a terrible condition, I have the right to take my life or reserve the right to the doctor or my family (Odianosen 9). When talking about Kant, Odianosen clearly agrees and supports that the categorical imperatives point in the direction away from any sort of euthanasia. In this quote that Odianosen uses, he is uthanasia. Of course Catholics and Kant believe in stopping human euthanasia, but Kants peculiar reasoning behind this is quite different from a Catholics thought of not disrespecting Gods holy creations. In An Introduction to Catholic Ethics by Longtin and Peach, thoroughly explain that in Kantian ethics, one must follow the moral law for the sake of the moral law itself. This means that one must not use euthanasia not because it may be considered murder and not because it might disrespect God, but because euthanasia in itself is unethical. Since murder is also a universal law, people cannot simply use someone as a means to an end meaning that is euthanasia is wanted mainly because insurance money is given out more quickly. Indeed, although their reasoning may be different, overall Catholics and Kant would agree. During the Age of Enlightenment, Kant walked the earth and thought of what is right, and what is truly wrong. The first Catholics were born over one thousand years prior, and they created a doctrine of ethics in which some are still agreed upon today. Both agree, no matter how different their backgrounds were, that taking a life even if that life is suffering is never okay; however between the categorical imperative and Gods will, their reasons for doing so are worlds apart. In extensively researching this topic, and having my own opinions, I would have to disagree with both of them. I think that taking a life in these situations is the humane option for several reasons. Firstly, if a human being is undergoing large amounts of pain and will clearly end in imminent death, there is no use for him or her to go through such stressful time if there is a quick and painless option. In addition, euthanasia may be the more economically sound option. Often, medical bill can be extremely expensive if great medical insurance is not possessed, and keeping that person alive for a small amount of time would put the entire family in a deep and maybe never ending economic plunder. Finally, and usually most importantly, it gives the family a sense of closer. No one wants to worry if their best friend, or favorite family will die today, tomorrow, next Friday, or in two months from now.
Thursday, April 16, 2020
Point of View in Toni Cade BambaraÃ¢â¬â¢s, Ã¢â¬Å"The LessonÃ¢â¬ Essay Paper Point of position is an indispensable component to a readerÃ¢â¬â¢s comprehension of a narrative. The point of position shows how the storyteller thinks. speaks. and feels about any peculiar state of affairs. In Toni Cade BambaraÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Lesson. Ã¢â¬ the events are told through the eyes of a immature uptown miss named Sylvia. The reader gets a limited point of position because the events are told purely by Sylvia. This fact can act upon the reader to see things merely as she does. The strong linguistic communication gives a unfamiliar reader an illustration of how people in the metropolis speak. We will write a custom essay sample on Point of View in Toni Cade BambaraÃ¢â¬â¢s, Ã¢â¬Å"The LessonÃ¢â¬ Essay specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Point of View in Toni Cade BambaraÃ¢â¬â¢s, Ã¢â¬Å"The LessonÃ¢â¬ Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Point of View in Toni Cade BambaraÃ¢â¬â¢s, Ã¢â¬Å"The LessonÃ¢â¬ Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Bambara does this to demo a different sort of life that may be new to the reader and may help in the comprehension of the street life. The reader gets a sense of SylviaÃ¢â¬â¢s personality in the really beginning of the narrative as she talks about Miss Moore. SylviaÃ¢â¬â¢s sentiment of her is non one of fancy. She says that she hates Miss Moore every bit much as the Ã¢â¬Å"winos who pissed on our handball walls and stand up on our hallways and stepss so you couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t center drama hide-and-seekÃ¢â¬ ( 307 ) . By comparing the hatred to something she enjoys. we see what a child in the slums does for merriment. Sylvia feels that Miss Moore ever plans Ã¢â¬Å"boring-ass things for us to doÃ¢â¬ ( 307 ) . Miss Moore seems to be different from what Sylvia is usage to. Sylvia harps on the fact that Miss Moore is educated. This shows that Sylvia is non use to being about educated people. She dislikes the fact that Miss Moore is a adult female with Ã¢â¬Å"nappy hair and proper address with no makeupÃ¢â¬ ( 307 ) . Sylvia continues to depict her as a Ã¢â¬Å"nappy caput bitch and her goddamn college degreeÃ¢â¬ and would instead make things that are fun alternatively of listening to her. Miss Moore efforts to learn the kids about the difference of how some people spend money. Sylvia feels insulted and thinks Miss Moore is naming them Ã¢â¬Å"retardsÃ¢â¬ when she asks the group do they cognize what money is. The first lesson is to calculate out how much of a tip they are suppose to go forth the cab driver. Sylvia wants to maintain the money and leap out of the cab and pass the money on some barbecue. Larceny seems to be a common characteristic within the group. Subsequently. when they are at the shop. Sugar asks Ã¢â¬Å"can we stealÃ¢â¬ ( 308 ) . Miss Moore shows the childs the monetary values of several objects and they are amazed at some of the costs. They try to calculate out how long they could salvage up to purchase things such as a 30 five-dollar birthday buffoon. The kids think about how 35 dollars would be used to purchase necessities alternatively of luxuries. The childs think that merely white people would purchase the objects that they see. Rosie Giraffe says that Ã¢â¬Å"white folksÃ¢â¬ are brainsick in the manner they spend money. This exemplifies the difference in the criterion of life from one portion of society to another. Ultimately. Bambara wants to demo the reader that there is a different position of life through the eyes of person from the metropolis. The attitude of Sylvia and her friends is an property to their milieus. The lesson that they learn is one that the reader receives besides. Bambara shows how some people can pass money on points that seem unimportant to the childs. Sylvia appears to brush off the whole experience by invariably knocking Miss Moore and believing negative ideas of her. In the terminal. the reader can see that Sylvia has soaked up some of the events and wants to endeavor to hold some of the finer things. The fact that Ã¢â¬Å"ainÃ¢â¬â¢t cipher gon na crush me at nuthinÃ¢â¬ shows that Sylvia is traveling to be the best of anything she pursues ( 312 ) . Bambara wants the reader to see that there is another type of life style in the metropolis. It is non to minimize Sylvia and her equals merely to demo that there is a difference of values. In this novel. that value is the difference of disbursement money.
Friday, March 13, 2020
Maggie Obituary Essays - Maggie, Stephen Crane, Free Essays Maggie Obituary Margaret Johnson, only daughter of Mary Murphy: found dead in the East River at age 23 Margaret Johnson, also called Maggie, was a successful seamstress and the only daughter of Mary Murphy died on November 19 in the East River where she was spotted floating atop the freezing cold water. The cause of death seems to be suicide due to a longing case of depression but there are still tests being done on the body. Because of the poverty Maggie was born into she did not have the chance to learn how to swim which leads to the thought of her getting hypothermia once she either jumped or got pushed in the river. Maggie was said to be a very intelligent young lady who was always very popular around the men. She was also said to be very dependent and that was clearly seen when she ran away from home and went straight to a guy friend of hers whose name will not be released. As soon as they realized their differences she quickly ran back home to her mother who then rejected her, claiming that she was the devil. Earlier in her short, prosperous life Maggie had to deal with the death of both her baby brother and her father, the one close family member that protected her in tough times that she often encountered. Margaret Johnson is survived by a brother Jimmie Johnson and her mother Mary Murphy. Bibliography www.maggie.com maggie: girl of the streets by stephen crane
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
What Factors Contribute to a Successful Computer-Based After-School Programm for At-Risk Children in an Urban Middle School - Dissertation Example The scope of this work is focused on whether the participation in an after-school program is beneficial to at-risk middle school students. This topic is important because there is a need for increasing the amount of time in which students are involved in educational activities beyond the regular school day. In these days of increased budget constraints any program that is competing for funding will have to be able to prove its efficacy. Having data to support the impact on academics of at-risk students will be beneficial to the program which requires funding, the entity which will supply the funding, and the students themselves as they will be able to determine if their time and/or money will be well-spent. This was a research project using interviews and reviews of academic progress reports/report cards. These methods allowed the researcher to not only establish a baseline as far as the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ grades are concerned but allowed for a look at the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ points-of-vi ew of the program. The interviews took place at a middle school. The findings show that participation in the after-school program led to improvements in academic performance in math. However, there were also several additional benefits as a result of the participation in terms of feelings, attitudes and behavior. ... I would like to dedicate this dissertation to my parents, Theodore and Patricia Wilson for their encouragement and support in what has turned out to be one of my greatest journeys. Without the additional support and understanding of my family and friends, this dissertation would not be in existence. Acknowledgements I would like to express my appreciativeness to my committee chair and mentor, Dr. E. Alana James, for her constant inspiration, feedback, and reinforcement. Thank you to Dr. Camilla Ferebee and Dr. Thea Williams for serving stupendously as my dissertation committee members. Their valued suggestions and knowledge have guided me through this wonderful three year journey. Table of Contents Abstract II Dedication III Acknowledgements IV Table of Contents IV Chapter I: Introduction of the Study 1 Background of the Study 1 Problem Statement 2 Purpose of the Study 3 Research Questions 3 Early Signs of Need of Extended Day Learning 4 Key Terms 4 Assumptions, Limitations, Scope, a nd Delimitations 5 Assumptions of the Study 5 Limitations of the Study 5 Scope of the Study 5 Delimitations of the Study 6 Significance of the Study 6 Summary 6 Chapter II: Review of the Literature 7 Introduction 7 History of After-school Programs 7 No Child Left Behind 10 Federal Role of Out-of-School Learning 12 At-Risk Students 14 Computer Usage in After-school Programs 15 Attendance and Academic Success 17 Benefits of Math After-School Programs 18 Summary 18 Chapter III: Methodology 20 Introduction 20 Research Questions and Hypotheses 20 Research Questions 20 Hypotheses 21 Background and Purpose 21 Methodological Design 22 Participants 24 Data Collection and Analysis 24 Consent and Confidentiality 26 Assumptions and Limitations 26 Summary 27 Chapter IV: Results 27